Tipos de Osteoporosis: radiografía a la enfermedad

Blog - 3 de Jul, 2019

Osteoporosis is a serious condition that currently affects more than 200 million people in the world , of which 80% are women [1]. Despite its high prevalence, it is one of the least diagnosed diseases that exist, to the point that 4 out of 5 people who have had at least one fragility fracture are currently undiagnosed and untreated [2]..

From what is recorded worldwide, only in the year 2000, 9 million osteoporotic fractures were estimated , of which 1.6 million were to the hip, 1.7 million to the forearm and 1.4 million clinically detected vertebral fractures [3]. These figures are the consequence of an asymptomatic disease, characterized by decreased bone mass, fragility and bone deterioration . However, the origin of osteoporosis is due to multiple factors, ranging from age to lifestyle.

CLASSIFICATION OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Clinically there are two types of osteoporosis: Primary, which in turn is subdivided into 3 types; and Secondary.

Primary: occurs spontaneously, since no disease is identified that justifies it. The subtypes it has are:

Type I: Postmenopausal osteoporosis

The prevalence is women between 51 and 75 years, after the definitive cessation of menstruation. It is characterized by a lack of estrogen that results in “accelerated and disproportionate loss of trabecular bone (high bone remodeling). Fractures of the vertebral bodies and the distal radius are frequent complications” [4]. In addition, there are other risk factors that increase the chances of suffering from this type of osteoporosis, such as low body weight, anorexia, poor diet and unhealthy habits.

Type II: Senile osteoporosis

It occurs in people over 60 or 70 years old, it is due to natural aging. Loss of bone mass implies fractures in the femoral neck, hip, shoulder, tibia and/or pelvis. There are also other etiopathogenic factors, which are sedentary lifestyle and immobilization, difficulty in intestinal absorption of calcium, vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Type III: Idiopathic osteoporosis

Those who suffer from this type of OP are children and young people between 8 and 14 years old. Although the causes are not fully established, it is manifested by sudden bone pain and fractures at the slightest trauma. This disorder usually attenuates or disappears completely in many cases spontaneously within a period of 4 or 5 years.  

Secondary:

It represents 5% of cases of osteoporosis in women and about 20% in men . The causes are usually due to suffering from a disease or the intake of medications derived from medical treatment. Among the pathologies we can find diabetes, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Turner syndrome, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBS), leukemia, pernicious anemia, rheumatic arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alcoholism, among others.

Pay attention to your bones!

Prevention is the best way to combat osteoporosis, with special emphasis on women. The call then is to follow healthy habits, practice exercises, balanced diet and consult a specialist about the need to consume vitamin and mineral supplements.

 

Sources:

[1] WHO

[2] The true face of osteoporosis

[3] Osteoporosis in Latin America: expert panel review

[4] Classification of osteoporosis. Risk factor’s. Clinic and differential diagnosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

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